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The city will again be characterized by her righteousness cf.

Verse 12:34

Isa This short oracle of blessing concerns Judah. Jerusalem had become grossly defiled; in the future restoration, she once again will be called righteous and holy, i. For the spiritual task of the transformation of Judah unto repentance unto faithfulness has already been accomplished unilaterally by the LORD, Jer ; Ezek Once spiritual things are taken care of temporal things will be provided as promised to Ephraim, Judah and all the tribes of Israel together.

Indeed, every individual need will be amply met. Even those who previously languished in despair, the LORD has filled. The words rendered "After this I awoke" refers to the end of an episode of the LORD's revelation to His prophet Jeremiah, after which he awoke from sleep and looked around, and concluded that his sleep was sweet, i.

Jeremiah's sleep was sweet because the truths he received in them were comforting previews of future glory for God's people, contrasted with the disappointing dreams in Isa ; cf. Prov The last phrase of the verse rendered, " and my sleep was sweet to me," is not an insertion by someone other than Jeremiah, as some contend, because it is in the first person singular pointing to the original author Jeremiah, Jer ; Furthermore, the prophet has never disparaged dreams as a source of revelation, as some contend citing Jer ; because the latter passage only refers to the falsified dreams of false prophets, cf.

Jer ; ; Dt ; Zech ; and Jeremiah has proven himself out to be a true prophet. Jeremiah never denied that dreams might be a true means of revelation; cf. Jer NASB 'In those days they will not say again [Lam ; Ezek ] [in the sense of 'it will never again be said']: The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge [Ezek ].

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Jer NASB But everyone will die for his own iniquity; each man who eats the sour grapes [wild grapes], his teeth will be set on edge [in the sense of dulled], [Dt ; Isa ; Ezek , 20]. Jer ; ; , 31, 38; , which continues the context of Jeremiah chapters That the end times are in view is clear from the words rendered, "The days are coming" cf. The verse begins right after Jeremiah's reflection upon the LORD's sweet revelation to him of promised prosperity for all of Judah and Israel together while he was asleep.

Jer portrays both kingdoms of Israel and Judah joined together in prosperity via increasing populations of man and beast - the subject of restored Israel's new found and forever prosperity. Because invasions and deportations had taken man and beast from the land, the Lord used Jeremiah to portray a dramatic renewal of the land through resowing the country with man and beast, cf. Ezek ; Hos ; The LORD conveys that He has watched over His people as He plucked them up, broke them down, over threw them, destroyed them and brought disaster to them - evidently as a result of their rebellious and unfaithful behavior.

But in the days which are coming, He will watch over them to build and to plant - to increase their numbers and to restore their prosperity, Jer ; ; ; , 40; ; Isa Jer NASB 'In those days they will not say again [in the sense of 'it will never again be said']: The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge. Jer NASB But everyone will die for his own iniquity; each man who eats the sour grapes [wild grapes], his teeth will be set on edge [in the sense of dulled]. And the LORD goes on to say that in those days of prosperity it will never again be said that the fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge, i.

For God's justice will guarantee that each guilty person will die for his own sin. Ezek NASB "What do you mean by using this proverb concerning the land of Israel, saying, 'The fathers eat the sour grapes, But the children's teeth are set on edge'? The soul who sins will die. So these people were blaming God for punishing them unjustly cf.

God saw that this false proverb had to be refuted. Yet, as with all false doctrines. In the Ten Commandments God indicated that He was "a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who hate Me" Ex. This same threat was repeated in Exodus and Deuteronomy Even Ezekiel had traced God's coming judgment back to the people's past actions cf.


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But the point of these passages was that the effects of sin are serious and long-lasting, not that God capriciously punishes the innocent for their ancestors' evil ways. Blaming others for their misfortunes, the people were denying their own guilt. This was wrong because every individual is personally responsible to God. For every living soul belongs to God, the father as well as the son. Those who are guilty will receive their own deserved punishment. The soul who sins is the one who will die cf. The people of Israel could not rightly charge God with injustice.

So those facing judgment in Jeremiah's day felt they were being unfairly punished by God for their ancestors' sins. Though the fathers had eaten sour grapes, it was the children who experienced the effects of having their teeth This proverb was false because it implied that God was unrighteous. God's justice will guarantee that each guilty person will die for his own sin. So the New Covenant is not yet in force because the time when a generation of all of Israel and Judah have been restored to the entire Promised Land has not yet come!

Furthermore, a number of verses indicate that God was a husband to Israel, ref. Isa ; Jer ; ; Hos , In the light of both being true, for God was as a husband to them, cf. Isa ; but due to Israel's egregious unfaithfulness, God disciplined her to the point of not valuing her while she was being unfaithful and ostrascized from His blessing. Twice God had announced a series of punishments or "curses" that would be invoked on those who violated His Law Lev. The judgment would be a physical deportation from the land of Israel, which occurred a number of times throughout the centuries.

God had set a holy standard of conduct before the people, but because of their sinful hearts they could not keep those standards. A change was needed, but such a change must involve a means which permits God to forgive sins so that He can make the change in a generation of Israel to righteousness, i.

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Jeremiah points out in this verse that the new covenant is built on the fact of Israel's failure under the old covenant. Because the old covenant was a legal one "If you do I will do" , it was incumbent on both parties to the covenant contract to maintain its provisions. This Israel did not do, for the people broke the first commandment before Moses descended from Sinai. Jeremiah does not repudiate or depreciate the Mosaic covenant; the fault lay with the people and their sin; they broke the covenant.

Thus the new covenant must supersede the old. If the old covenant had not been broken, then what need was there for the ministry of Jeremiah or any of the OT prophets? All were commissioned by God to call the nation to repent of her transgressions of the Mosaic Law cf. Jer ; ; Ezek The day when the covenant was made with the "forefathers" refers to the whole period of the Exodus cf. The blame for breaking the covenant rested wholly on Israel and Judah, for there was no fault in God; he had ever been as faithful to them as a faithful husband to his wife.

This marriage relationship was the very basis on which God expected obedience to and fidelity in the covenant.

Biblical Cross references

The New Covenant does not include the church because the church is not stipulated as one of the parties. It is clear that the church is not included because the church was not under a former old covenant, which is referred to in Jer On the other hand, the making of the new covenant was inextricably bound up with the substitutionary atonement of the Servant of the LORD, Who is the New Covenant Whom God has given to Israel and to the world for the salvation of Israel and all mankind - to all individuals of the nations of the earth who choose to believe in Him for eternal life, Isa ; ; Jer - a national, not an individual covenant.

Since those days have not arrived yet, it is neither made, ratified, nor currently in force relative to nations or individuals, as some contend. According to Jer , God's New Covenant will involve a future internalization of His Law - unlike saved individuals before the time the New Covenant is instituted. God will put His Law in their minds and on their hearts, not just on stones Ex. God's New Covenant will give Israel the inner ability to obey His righteous standards and thus to enjoy His blessings.

Ezekiel indicated that this change will result from God's bestowal of the Holy Spirit on these believers cf. Ezek ; In Old Testament times the Holy Spirit did not universally indwell all believers; nor during the age that followed - the Church Age - does the Holy Spirit transform believers into faithful beings without sin as He will do in the fulfillment of the New Covenant in the end times, cf.

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Joel Heretofore, mankind will struggle with sin in the temporal life until the fulfillment of the New Covenant. In contrast to the writing on the tables of stone - the Law of Moses, cf. Exod ; ; ; Deut ; ; the Law of God will be put within the New Covenant believers' minds, i. So God's Law will become an intergral part of the New Covenant believers' mindsets and a principle of life by which they will unwaveringly and unfailingly conduct themselves. It will become part of the nature of God's people; it will be instinctive. The core of the New Covenant is God's gift of a new heart cf.

Ezek Herein lies the sufficient motivation for obeying God's law. Basic to obedience is inner knowledge of God's will coupled with an enablement to perform it, all founded on the assurance that sins are forgiven.


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  • Permanence is also a feature of this covenant cf. Since the inward dynamic was absent in the old covenant, it could not be effective. There must be an inner force, a new power. The sins of the people resulted in the curses of the Old Covenant. However, as part of the New Covenant with Israel, God will forgive Israel's wickedness and remember her sins no more. But how could a holy God overlook sin?

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    Forgiveness of sin will be part of the fulfillment of the New Covenant only because God has provided the Servant as a substitutionary atonement to pay the penalty for the sins of all mankind - not just one generation of Israel alone, cf. And not only will all of a future end time generation of Israel's and Judah's sins be forgiven and saved unto eternal life under the New Covenant; but so will all of those individuals who are of all the peoples of the earth throughout the ages who likewise believe in Him, in His atonement for their sins - be saved unto eternal life.

    Each believer's salvation throughout history will be accompanied by unique blessings as Scripture teaches for ones age and group of people. So the New Covenant will be exclusively made with and enacted upon an entire future generation of the house of Israel together with the house of Judah - no other group of people stipulated as part of the New Coveant - to be saved unto eternal life at the point when all of them believe in the substitutionary atonement of the Servant of the LORD, cf.

    As God had appointed the sun to shine by day and the moon and stars to shine by night cf.